:: Brief History of Crusade ::
Crusade War or was well known by “Holy War“, started with two major events occurred in Manzikart / Constantinople in 1071 A.D. That`s when the army of Arp Arselan defeated Roman Empire in a long and exhausting wars. Followed by the succesfull mission of Turkish`s Seljuk Dynasty to reconquered Baitul Maqdis/Holy Land in 1079 A.D.
The outcome of these two major events was the less authority given to the christian believers in europe, to visit Jerussalem.
In 1095 A.D, Pope Urbanus II then called out the entire christian believers in Europe to reclaim Jerussalem through violence and war against The Moslem. The war that then became the source of hatred among those two religions for more than 200 years (1094-1344). The Crusade.
It was not until few decades later that the main causes of such long and exhausting wars, finally revealed.
- The Advancement of Seljuk, The European feel threatened by the seljuk`s invasion toward minor asia and eastern europe including Manzikart/Constantinople.
- The Fall of Byzantium/Constantinople to the hands of Seljuk, As a matter of fact, Emperor Alexius Comneus of Constantinople was in good relationship with Pope due to God`s errand and in order to reestablish his power over the regions conquered by Seljuk, he proposed an alliance with pope.
- Imperialism, this considered as common cause in which european merchants were trying to take control over the moslem`s trading routes to raise their capitals.
1st Crusade (1094-1144 A.D)
Started with Pope Urbanus II`s public speech in 1095 A.D. The first crusade often addressed as Conquer Period. These unexperienced army led by Pierre I’ermite was not well organized and they were easily crushed by The Seljuk. Godfrey of Buillon then took command of army. Unlike his predecessor, Godfrey was a military expert. By the end of 1098, he had already conquered Antioch, Tartur, Aleppo, Tripoli, Syam and Acre. In June 1099 he conquered Jerussalem and slaughtered nearly 70000 inhabitants. They`ve successfully established the governance in Maqdis, Enthiokhie, Raha and Tripolisyam till 1144 A.D.
2nd Crusade (1044-1193 A.D)
The 2nd Crusade was much more organized than the 1st. European regiments was led by Lode wiyk VII (Louis VII), Bernard de Clairvaux and Concrad III from German.
The Moslem after defeated by the Christian in 1st Crusade, had developed their strength and power. These war has brought unity among the arabs. In 1144 A.D Imanuddin Zanky succeeded in capturing Aleppo, Edessa and Syam. His successor Nuruddin Sidi Saefuddin Gazi was also succeeded in capturing Damascus (1147 A.D), Antioch (1149 A.D) , Egypt (1169 A.D) and neighbouring cities. They`ve forced the Christian to retreat to Jerussalem when Salahuddin Yusuf Al-Ayyubi (Saladin) marched his armies there to reconquer city (1187 A.D). He succeeded. His name became famous throughout the land as a military expert and honourable generals.
**Picture taken from Kingdom of Heaven =D
3rd Crusade (1093-1291 A.D)
The 3rd Crusade was the longest war among others. A hundred years of constant warfare between Europe and Asia. The Third Crusade was caused by the capture of Jerusalem in 1187 by Saladin, the sultan of Egypt. The news spread to europe. Once more, thousands of men sewed the cross in gold, or silk, or cloth upon their garments and set out for the Holy Land. For some reason, the 3rd Crusade was considered the greatest crusade ever. That`s because the three greatest rulers of Europe – King Philip Augustus of France, King Richard I of England (afterwards given the title “Coeur de Lion” or “Lionheart”), and the German emperor, Frederick Barbarossa were also took part in this war.
Frederick Barbarossa was drowned while crossing a swollen stream, and the most of the survivors of his army, disheartened by the loss of their leader, returned to Germany.
The English and French succeeded in capturing Acre from Moslem`s hand after one of the longest and most costly sieges they ever carried on in Asia. After occupied Acre, Richard and Philip began to quarrels. Something that prevented them from following up this initial success. King Philip soon went home, leaving the further conduct of the crusade in Richard’s hands.
Richard and the English remained in the Holy Land. His campaigns during this time gained for him the title of “Lionheart”, by which he is always known. He had tried many times, but stil could not capture Jerusalem. For two years did Richard the Lionheart vainly contend in almost daily combat with Saladin for the possession of the tomb of Christ. They finally concluded a truce by the terms of which Christians were permitted to visit Jerusalem without paying tribute, that they should have free access to the holy places, and remain in undisturbed possession of the coast from Jaffa to Tyre. Saladin died Februari 1193 A.D, King Richard then set sail for England, and with his departure from the Holy Land the Third Crusade came to an end.
4th Crusade (1202-1206 A.D)
The 4th Crusade focused their objective on Egypt as a center of Moslem power. Accordingly, the crusaders proceeded to Venice, for the purpose of securing transportation across the Mediterranean. The Venetians agreed to furnish the necessary ships only on condition that the crusaders first seized Zara on the eastern coast of the Adriatic. Zara was a Christian city, but it was also a naval and commercial rival of Venice. In spite of the pope’s protests the crusaders besieged and captured the city. Even then they did not proceed against the Moslems. The Venetians persuaded them to turn their arms against Constantinople. The possession of that great capital would greatly increase Venetian trade and influence in the East; for the crusading nobles it held out endless opportunities of acquiring wealth and power. Thus it happened that these soldiers of the Cross, pledged to war with the Moslems, attacked a Christian city, which for centuries had formed the chief bulwark of Europe against the Arab and the Turk. They succeeded in capturing Constantinople and afterwards, renewing the truce agreement between Christian and Moslem in 1204 A.D.
5th Crusade (1217-1221 A.D)
The 5th Crusade took place in Constantinople and was led by Jeande Brunne Kardinal Pelagius and King of Hungary. They succeeded in capturing Constantinople and Damietta in November 1219 then marched to Cairo. Unfortunately they began to quarrel each other and made disruption along the way.
6th Crusade (1228-1229 A.D)
The 6th Crusade was led by Frederick II from Hobiens Taufen, Emperor of German
and King of Italy (afterwards became King of Jerussalem) since his diplomatic ability to negotiate with
Sultan Al-Malikul Kamil, Saladin`s nephew. In 1244 Sultan Al Malikul Shaleh Najamuddin
Ayyub took over his power for untold reason.
7th Crusade (1248-1254 A.D)
The 7th Crusade was led by King Louis IX of France. He succeeded in capturing Damietta in 1249 A.D but failed to capture Antioch and Tunis in 1250 A.D, when he was taken as prissioner (along with his officials) by Sultan Malik Zahir Bay Bars. Moslem armies demanded ransom for exchange.
8th Crusade (1270-1272 A.D)
The 8th Crusade was led by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. They succeeded in wiping out the entire Moslem armies in Granada and Andalusia. Afterwards they marched to Acre to reconquer the city but failed and defeated by Malikul Asyraf (son of Malikul Shaleh) armies.